Elementary School Lesson Plan: Anthropology
- Understand how human activities are affected by the physical environment.
- Identify and understand the groups living in the Western Hemisphere before European exploration, their way of life, and the empires they developed.
- Understand the impact of early European exploration on Native Americans and the land.
State and Local History:
- Understand and interpret events, issues, and developments in Oregon history.
- Identify significant people in the history of Oregon.
- Understand the contributions of various people and cultures that have lived in the area that is now Oregon.
Social Science Analysis:
- Gather, use and evaluate researched information to support analysis and conclusions.
- Subtopic: The Native Context and the Arrival of other Peoples; Humans and Oregon's Diverse Landscapes (Background information for teachers)
- Subtopic: The Native Context and the Arrival of Other Peoples: Shaping the Landscape (Background information for teachers)
- Subtopic: Where Living Waters Flow: Place and People: Native American Cultures: The Takelma & Other Peoples (Background information for teachers)
- Subtopic: Wonders of Nature: Towering Pines (Background information for teacher)
- Subtopic: The Great Divide: Resettlement and the New Economy: Relocation to Reservation Lands (Background information for teachers and reading for 5th graders)
- Wasco (Warm Springs) Reservation Sketch Map Submitted with Treaty of 1855
- Klamath Indians in Dugout Canoes
- Chinookans of the Lower Columbia River
- Ponderosa Pine, Prineville, 1931
- Faulitz River from Yam Hills
Introduce topic, photographs and images of Native Americans in Oregon by dividing class into small groups to brainstorm responses to the following:
- Consider the lives of Oregon Coast tribes in 1750. What materials did they use to build their dwellings? Where and how did they get their food? What tools did they need to: build dwellings? gather food? make clothing?
- Allow class time (may take 2 or more lessons) to respond as a group.
- Chart responses
- Using a map of Oregon, show students areas where Native American peoples lived.
- Using suggested documents develop teacher “mini-talks” and questions for small group discussion that support lesson objectives.
To identify and understand Native American groups and cultures living in Oregon before Euro American contact and to understand how those groups were removed to reservations.
- Use maps, readings, and classroom discussions to gain information about the cultures and regions of Oregon’s Native American peoples.
- Identify the materials (natural resources) some Native Americans used to build their dwellings.
- Learn how some of Oregon’s Native Americans obtained and prepared food.
- Look at the ways in which some early Native American peoples lived and how traditional cultures are practiced today.
- Discuss the issues and sides to the land conflicts between the whites and Native Americans.
- Investigate influential politics and laws.
- Discuss the equity of the resettlement and compensation of the Native Americans.
- Explore and research the effects these events had on the Native American population then and now.
Social Science Analysis:
- Understand how individuals changed or significantly influenced the course of Oregon state history
- Identify and study two or more points of view of an event, issue, or problem
- Identify characteristics of an event, issue, or problem suggesting possible causes and results
Allow students to demonstrate their understanding by having them:
- Create pictures of living conditions.
- Draw maps showing areas populated by Native Americans, location of available natural resources, etc.
- Write a letter to an eighteenth century Native American child of a particular tribe, asking questions based on what they have learned from this lesson plan.
- Sketch of the Willamette Valley, showing the purchases and reservations made by the Board of Commissioners with the Indians of Oregon, April and May 1851
- Map of the Wasco (Warm Springs) Reservation, 1855
- Diagram of the Reservations and Tracts of Land Purchased from the Various Indian Tribes in Oregon. Superintendents Office, Salem, January 1, 1864
- Letter from southern Oregon settlers to Siletz River Indian Agent, J.H. Fairchild, August 13, 1875
Engage students in discussion about Indian/white trading practices in the 1850s. Ask them if they have ever made unfair trades with someone.
- Discuss the fairness of equity of Indian-European trade.
- Introduce and discuss the 1850 Oregon Indian Act and how it affected the treaties and resettlement of Native Americans. Provide background Information about the Oregon Indian Act (in June, 1850 the United States Congress passed the Oregon Indian Act, which created a Board of Commissioners to create treaties with the Indians and extinguished their title to tribal lands).
- What would people think about this law today?
- Introduce the Map of the Wasco (Warm Springs) Reservation, 1855. Provide background information on the geography of the area shown in the map. Ask students to consider why Native Americans agreed to move to a reservation and cede to the government 10 million acres of their land?
- Have students write a persuasive essay on some aspect of the discussion. Encourage students to use the writing process to fully develop their essay topic.